Gastralia. Slate’s Use of Your Data 2019-05-05

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DINOSAUR GASTRALIA; ORIGIN, MORPHOLOGY, AND FUNCTION

gastralia

This email address is being protected from spambots. The article also quotes Prof. Cuirassal ventilation was plesiomorphically present as an accessory ventilation mechanism in Dinosauria and was powered by the M. The suggestions of Nopcsa or Holland that morphotype A elements represent the os penis or sternal ribs, respectively, are improbable given the absence of bacula in extant reptiles, and because they are relatively much more massive compared with articulated sternal ribs of pterosaurs or crocodylians Claessens et al. The furcula may have been present in various theropods, including allosaurids, caenagnathids oviraptorids and tyrannosaurids. The suggestions of Nopcsa or Holland that morphotype A elements represent the os penis or sternal ribs, respectively, are improbable given the absence of bacula in extant reptiles, and because they are relatively much more massive compared with articulated sternal ribs of pterosaurs or crocodylians Claessens et al. As sternal ribs, also gastralia are present in both birds and crocodylians Claessens,.

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Gastralium

gastralia

The Function of the Gastralial Apparatus in Plateosaurus engelhardti In the past, the discussion on the function of the gastralial apparatus of tetrapods has focussed on two hypotheses: 1 protection and support of the viscera and 2 respiration. The rows are V-shaped with the apices of the rows pointing cranially. Studies on skeleton formation in reptiles. Image credit: Copyright the Field Museum While Sue's 40. Studies in Natural History, 1—30.

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Gastrália

gastralia

The avian relationships of Archaeopteryx are assessed in terms of the 'stem-group' concept. Adding the gastralia, with the first pair stretching 44 inches apart at the tips, meant adjusting other elements of the skeleton, including making the ribs wider. The M 21 cluster was associated with the skull and neck of a diplodocine sauropod, as well as single probably diplodocid anterior chevrons. They can be distinguished from ribs by the presence of the spatulate and bifid ends, the more circular cross-section at midlength, and the striated rugosities present on the spatulate end. Gastralia were also reported from Gongxianosaurus shibeiensis and Jobaria tiguidensis He et al. The most similar bones to morphotype C elements would be cervical ribs or ossified tendons.

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Clavicles, interclavicles, gastralia, and sternal ribs in sauropod dinosaurs: new reports from diplodocidae and their morphological, functional and evolutionary implications.

gastralia

The interclavicle is generally interpreted to have been lost in Dinosauriformes Nesbitt,. This outgrowth resembles somewhat pathological bony overgrowth but also the shape of two unfused anterior or posterior gastralia with their enlarged medial ends. Vertebrates: Comparative Anatomy, Function, Evolution 3rd ed. The muscles of the hypaxial abdominal muscle group are active during ventilation and locomotion, which suggests that the functions of the gastralial apparatus of Plateosaurus may be more complex than previously suggested. Reconstruction of the pectoral girdle and the chest region of an indeterminate diplodocid sauropod, based on the finds reported.

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Murusraptor

gastralia

The relationship between function and shape, however, is very complex and fundamental aspects of the function — shape relationship of most anatomical structures — is not yet fully understood. Phylogenetical implications The proposed presence of ossified elements in the chest region of some sauropods has also phylogenetical implications — even in case some of the above-stated interpretations would remain controversial. They are concave on one side, and convex on the opposite surface, and are usually found in pairs. Left and right pairs of the gastralial rows are displaced relative to each other. Geological Survey of Canada, Memoir, 100:1—84.

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Murusraptor

gastralia

The distal end of the medial gastralia is flattened cranially to provide an articulation facet for the lateral gastralia. Combining new insights presented here with published data Huene, 1907-08, 1915; Cooper, 1981; Claessens, 2004; Knoll, 2010; Sertich et al. Chicago: University of Chicago Press; 1956. It has been found that the abdominal hypaxial muscles are well suited to accomplish this task Carrier, 1990, 1993; Bennett et al. Biomechanics Research Group, Fakultät für Maschinenbau, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universitätsstraße 150, 44801 Bochum, Germany.

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Gastralgia

gastralia

Previous reports Several bones belonging to morphotype A have been reported in the literature, and were usually identified as sauropod clavicles Table. To our knowledge, the bones previously interpreted as sauropod clavicles were always found as single bones, which sheds doubt on the validity of their identification. Both Carrier and Farmer 2000 and Claessens 2004 concluded that the gastralial apparatus of saurischian dinosaurs with its mid-ventral imbricating articulation might represent an adaptation to a highly derived saurischian ventilatory mechanism. The lateral gastralia of the first row are as robust as the medial gastralium and do not taper laterally. General morphology Bones belonging to morphotype E have irregular shapes that cannot be included in any of the above defined morphotypes. Due to their particular shapes, morphotype E elements do not resemble any other bone in the sauropod skeleton.

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DINOSAUR GASTRALIA; ORIGIN, MORPHOLOGY, AND FUNCTION

gastralia

All higher kinds of plants and animals appear abruptly and without transition. In amphibians and reptiles, the abdominal hypaxial muscles allow for lateral bending of the trunk and stabilization of the trunk against long-axis torsion during walking e. Further towards this end, the bone curves and becomes more rugose again. Gastralia of the cranialmost or caudalmost rows may coalesce, forming a median chevron-shaped gastralium. A nearly complete skeleton of an early juvenile diplodocid Dinosauria: Sauropoda from the Lower Morrison Formation Late Jurassic of north central Wyoming and its implications for early ontogeny and pneumaticity in sauropods. The topology and paired appearance of these morphotype B elements strongly suggests that they fit an identification as clavicles better than morphotype A. Only one present Dermal bone Between the clavicles.

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